Prediction of Average Speed Based on Relationships Between Neighbouring Roads Using K-NN and Neural Network

Bagus Priambodo, Azlina Ahmad, Rabiah Abdul Kadir

Abstract


For decades, various algorithms to predict traffic flow have been developed to address traffic congestion. Traffic congestion or traffic jam occurs as a ripple effect from a road congestion in the neighbouring area. Previous research shows that there is a spatial correlation between traffic flow in neighbouring roads. Similar traffic pattern is observed between roads in a neighbouring area with respect to day and time. Currently, time series models and neural network models are widely applied to predict traffic flow and traffic congestion based on historical data. However, studies on relationships between road segments in a neighbouring area are still limited. It is important to investigate these relationships because they can assist drivers in avoiding roads which are impacted by road congestion. Also, the result can be used to improve the accuracy of prediction of traffic flow. Hence, this study investigates relationships of roads in a neighbouring area based on similarity of traffic condition. Traffic condition is influenced by number of vehicles and average speed of vehicles. In our study, clustering method is used to divide the speed of traffic into four (4) categories: very congested, congested, clear and very clear. We used k-means clustering method to cluster condition of traffic flow on road segments.  Then, we applied the k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) method to classify the traffic condition in neighbouring roads. From the classification of traffic condition in neighbouring roads, we then determine the relationship between road segments. We presented the road with highest relationship on the map and used it as input factor to predict traffic speed of the road using neural network. Results show that combination of k-means and k-NN method produced better results than using both, correlation method and using the k-means method only.

Keywords


k-nearest neighbour; k-means clustering; neural network; prediction of traffic speed; the relationship between roads

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International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE) – eISSN: 2626-8493
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